Dayak is the name given to natives of the island of Borneo. Borneo Island is divided by regions that regulate the Administrative area, each consisting of: the capital of Samarinda in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan with its capital of Banjarmasin, the capital of Central Kalimantan, Palangkaraya, and West Kalimantan capital of Pontianak city.
The Dayak groups, divided again into sub-sub-tribe which numbers approximately 405 sub (by JU Lontaan, 1975). Each sub tribe Dayak in Borneo island have customs and cultures are similar, referring to the sociology kemasyarakatannya and differences in customs, culture, and language characteristics. Past society that is now called the Dayak tribe, inhabiting the coastal areas and rivers in each of their settlements.Ethnic Dayaks of Borneo according to an anthropology JU Lontaan, 1975 in book Customary Law and Customs of West Kalimantan, consists of 6 major tribes and 405 sub-tribes small, which spread across Kalimantan. Strong urbanization that brought influences from outside, such as causing them to wither away further and further into the hinterland and hills in all regions of Borneo.
They call themselves with groups that originated from an area based on river names, names of heroes, the name of nature and so forth. For example, he said the origin of the Iban tribe ivan (in Kayan, ivan = wanderer) as well as according to other sources that they call themselves by the name of spare Batang Lupar, because it comes from the river Batang Lupar, border areas of West Kalimantan to Sarawak, Malaysia. Mualang tribe, a name taken from a respected figure (Manok cocks / executioner) in Tampun Juah and the name was immortalized into a tributary name Ketungau Sintang area (because of an incident) and then used as the name of the Dayak tribe Mualang. Dayak Bukit (Kanayatn / Ahe) derived from the Hill / mountain Onion. Likewise, the origin of Dayak Kayan, Sleep, Tamambaloh tribes elders, Kenyah, Benuag, Ngaju and others, who have historical background on their own.But there is also the Dayak tribe that no longer knows the origin of the name of his tribe. The name "Dayak" or "Power" is the name eksonim (name not given by the society itself) and not endonim name (the name given by the community itself). The word comes from the word Dayak Power "which means upstream, to mention the people who live in rural or perhuluan generally Kalimantan and West Kalimantan in particular, (although now many Dayak communities who have settled in the city districts and provinces) that have a similarity of customs and cultures and still adhere to tradition.Central Kalimantan has a very different problem of ethnicity in the appeal of West Kalimantan. The majority of the inhabitants of Central Kalimantan ethnis is ethnis Dayak, the largest Dayak tribe Ngaju, Ot Danum, Maanyan, Hamlet, etc.. While their religion is very varied. Muslim Dayak in Central Kalimantan, Dayak retains ethnisnya, as well as for the Dayak who convert to Christianity. Dayak indigenous religion in Central Kalimantan is Kaharingan, which is the original religion that was born from the local culture before the Indonesian people familiar with the first religion that is Hinduism. Because Hinduism has been widespread in the world meyebar especially Indonesia and more widely known, when compared with the Dayak tribe religion, the Religion Kaharingan categorized into a branch of Hinduism.West Kalimantan province has its own uniqueness to the process of cultural alkurturasi or displacement of a religious culture for local communities. In this process very closely related to the two largest tribes in the West Kalimantan Dayak, Malay and Chinese. At first Nations inhabit coastal West Kalimantan Dayak, live with the tradition and culture of each, then came the traders from gujarab Muslim (Malay Arabic) with the aim of buying and selling goods from and to the Dayak community, and because they often interact, alternating through pick up and deliver commodities to and from the Strait of Malacca (a central trade in the past), cause they wanted settled in new areas that have large trade potential for their benefit.This is the main attraction for the Dayak community when in contact with immigrants who brought new knowledge foreign to the region. Because of the frequent occurrence of the process of buying or selling goods, and cultural interaction, leading to a crowded West Kalimantan coast, visit local communities (Dayak) and Arab traders from the Malay Straits of Malacca. In those days religious system Dayak people began to be affected and influenced by the Malay traders who are familiar with the knowledge, education and religion of Islam from outside Kalimantan. Due to a harmonious relationship is established well, then the local community or Dayak, there are sympathetic to the merchants of Gujarat, which gradually affected, then the Islamic religion is accepted and recognized in the year 1550 AD in the Kingdom of Tanjung Pura Giri Kusuma on penerintahan which is the kingdom wither and slow gradually began to spread in West Kalimantan.Dayak people still adhere to the belief and dynamism, they believe any certain places there are rulers, which they call: Jubata, Petara, Ala Taala, Penompa and others, to name a supreme God, then they still have another ruler under the power of God highest: for example: Puyang Gana (Dayak mualang) is the ruler of the land, King Juata (ruler of Water), Kama "Baba (Army ruler), Jobata, Apet Kuyan'gh (Dayak Mali) and others. For those who still adhere to his beliefs and cultural dynamism of his originals, they separated themselves into the more distant kepedalaman.As for a handful of Dayak communities who have entered Islam because of marriage more entrants imitate the lifestyle that is considered to have had advanced civilization because many relate to the outside world. (And according to its development, then entered the missionaries and Christian mission / Christian inland). In general, the Dayak people who convert to Islam in West Kalimantan are considered by the Dayak tribe of the same ethnic Malay. Dayak tribe of pristine (hold firm beliefs ancestors) in the past, until they tried to reinforce the differences, Dayak tribes who converted to Islam (because of marriage with ethnic Malays) to show ourselves as the tribe melayu.banyak who forgot the identity of the Dayak tribes from his new religion and the rules of engagement with the customs and traditions. After the new settlers in the coastal assimilated with the Dayak tribes who moved (through marriage with a Malay tribe) to the Religion of Islam, the religion of Islam is more synonymous with ethnic Malay and Christian religion or belief in the dynamism is more synonymous with tribe Dayak.sejalan urbanization to Borneo, causing coastal Kalimantan West became crowded, as more and more in both local and outsiders visit the other country.To set the character of the area in the Malay community entrusted appointed as the leader or the title Penembahan (a term that brought settlers to refer to the little king) this penembahan independent living in a territory under its jurisdiction based on the composition of the religious affiliation of the central government, and tend to maintain area. However there are times penembahan states subject to the kingdom from his homeland, for security or expansion of power.Dayak people who moved to the religion of Islam or who have been married to Malay settlers called Senganan, or enter senganan / entrance of the Sea, and now they claim themselves as Malays. They picked up one of their leaders from both segani ethnisnya or immigrants who have co-religionists and charismatic in his circle, as village leaders or the leaders of the territories they segani.Distribution Characteristics Dayak DanceBased on the spread of West KalimantanDayak peoples of West Kalimantan are divided by ethnic subgroups that are scattered throughout the districts in West Kalimantan. Based on the ethno linguistic and cultural cirri dance movement Dayak in West Kalimantan into 4 major groups, 1 small groups namely:1. Kendayan / Kanayatn Grop: Dayak Bukit (ginger), Banyuke, Lara, Darit, Belangin, Bakati "etc.. Regional distribution in Pontianak Regency, Regency Hedgehogs, Bengkayang District, and sekitarnya.mempunyai dance movement, energetic, stakato, hard.2. Ribunic / Jangkang Grop / Bidoih / Bidayuh: Dayak Ribun, Pandu, Pompakng, latitude, Pangkodatn, Jangkang, Kembayan, Simpakng, etc.. Regional distribution in Sanggau Kapuas district, has a characteristic open hand gestures, no rough and smooth.3. Iban / Ibanic: Dayak Iban and other small subgroups, Mualang, Ketungau, Sleep, Sebaruk, Banyur, Tabun, Bugau, Undup, Saribas, Village, Seberuang, and so forth. Regional distribution in Sambas (border), District Sanggau / malenggang and surrounding areas (the border) District Sekadau (Belitang Lower, Middle, Upper) Sintang, Kapuas Hulu regency, Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei Darussalam. have a dominant feature of hip motion, not hard and not too subtle.4. Banuaka "Grop: Parks, Tamambaloh tribes elders and sub him, dull, and so on. Regional distribution in Kapuas Hulu.ciri motion mirif ibanic group, but a little more subtle.5. Kayaanik, forgiveness, etc. muddy.Besides divided by ethno linguistic group, recorded by a large number, there are many more who have not identified his dance motion, because the spread and split up and divided into small tribes. For example Dayak Mali / Ayek-Ayek, there dialur Tayan road towards the district. ketapan. then Dayak Ketapang, Regional simpakng like Dayak Dayak Samanakng and Kualan, Persaguan area, Kendawangan, Kayong area, Sandai, local Krio, Aur yellow. Manjau area etc..Then Dayak Sambas regency, namely Dameo / Damea, Sambas district and district Sungkung Bengkayang and so forth. Then the local District and Mahap Sekadau towards Nanga Nanga Park, Javan, Jawai, Benawas, Kematu and others. Then Melawi District, namely: dayak Keninjal (the majority of land Pinoh; among others ribang rabing village, ribang semalan, intermediate highway, rompam, ulakmuid, Maris etc.) dayak Kebahan (among other villages: Poring, nusa kenyikap, Wood Flower, etc. that have pestle dance and dance belonok kelenang endangered), dayak Linoh (among other villages: Nanga taum, partly Ulak Muid, mahikam etc.), dayak pangen (Jongkong, some villages balaiagas etc.), dayak kubing (among other river villages bakah / river spirit, nyanggai, Nanga highway etc), dayak limai (such as promontory village banyan, Captain, support their, ell, etc.), undau dayak, dayak forgiveness, dayak ranokh / anokh (including some in the village of stone buil, river highway, etc.), dayak sebruang (among other jungle village cape, piawas etc.), Ot Danum Dayak (enter group cal-teng), Leboyan.Dayak Dance Background Clause Temuai Datai"Clause Temuai Datai" lifted from the Dayak languages Mualang (Ibanic Group), which can not be interpreted directly, because if there is any discrepancy in the mean word for word. But the Clause is meant Offertory / Application to hold a traditional ritual or ceremony, then Temuai means: guests, Datai meaning: Come. If adjusted for the purpose of dance is: Dance Ceremony in which there in a procession to welcome guests or Dance Welcome guest. aims to welcome guests or visitors who come great (glorified). Early birth of this art that is from the headhunting / the past, among the Dayak ethnic groups. Mengayau, derived from the word me and Ngayau. Me means doing the action, Ngayau: beheading the enemy, act of decapitating the enemy (Mengayau contained in the Dayak Iban language and Ibanik, also in the Dayak community in general). But if mengayau particular implies that an action seeking any other group (the enemy) by attacking and decapitating his opponent (mengayau consists of various customary among Kayau banyau / crowded / attack, Kayau Children are: Mengayau in small groups, Kayau Beguyap namely: Mengayau no more than three people. In Mualang Dayak community in the past of the heroes who came home from hunting and bring proof Kayau result of a human head (the enemy), is an exalted guest, and regarded as one who is capable of being a hero to his group. Therefore It was held the ceremony of "Clause Temuai Datai". The Dayaks believe that the person's head to save a spirit or soul force that can protect the owner and his tribe. According to J, U. Lontaan (Customary Law and Customs of West Kalimantan, 1974), there are four goals in mengayau namely: to protect agriculture, to obtain additional mental power, for revenge, and as the foundation of a building endurance. After getting the results from mengayau, the heroes are not allowed to enter the territory of the village, but by providing a sign language called Dayak Mualang Nyelaing (shouts typical Dayak), which reads Heeih!, as many as seven times, which means heroes come home and win in a head-hunting and get a fresh opponent. If the cry is just three times means that the heroes win the war or mengayau but fell victim side. If only once means that the heroes do not gain anything and not held a special reception. After giving the sign nyelaing, the head-hunters sent representatives to meet with the leadership or the head of his tribe to prepare a welcoming ceremony. The process of welcoming this, through four rounds: 1. Ngunsai Rice ( scatter some rice in front of the Bujang Dare / knight / hero, as he recited prayers through the mediation of Sengalang birds), 2. Mancong Buloh namely; cut with Saber / Nyabor to decide who deliberately dilintangkan bamboo or in a pond in the entrance area of the house panjai. 3 Ngajat Ngiring Temuai: dancing to guide the guest or guests to the fore of the ascent Houses Panjai (long houses on stilts) temuai ngiring process is done with the dancing and the dance is called Ngajat Ngiring Temuai. 4. Tama 'room (enter the house panjai) or go to certain places after soaking his feet on a stone in a container as a symbol pencelap semengat, after going through a procession round the above, then the guests are allowed up to the long house with the intention of purifying yourself in a ceremony called Start Semengat (restore the spirit of war), then held devices nutmeg 'event to honor the head of the kayau, and in this event there are some dance called: Nutmeg Swing Dance, Sword Dance, etc.. The names of some of the Commander / Tuwak Dayak Mualang past namely: Tuwak Biau Balau (Kayau leader), Tuwak Pangkar Begili (Never Back off, his strategy if besieged, rotating and attacking), Tuwak Sangau Sibi (Every time wanted Mengayau), Tali Tuwak Aran (like a collection of head of an enemy he could in mengayau), Tuwak Lang Ngindang (always lurking place - a place of defense enemy first like an eagle, if surrounded he would jump and float to follow the wind) and so forth. Informant: Public Figure Belitang Kumpang Central Bus etc.